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蔡雪梅 罗珠珠 李玲玲 牛伊宁 蔡立群 谢军红 张耀全 马欣 潘占东

引用本文: 蔡雪梅,罗珠珠,李玲玲,牛伊宁,蔡立群,谢军红,张耀全,马欣,潘占东. 黄土高原旱作农田土壤水分对苜蓿种植年限和后茬春小麦的响应. 草业科学, 2020, 37(0): 1-12 doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0146 shu
Citation:  CAI X M, LUO Z Z, LI L L, NIU Y N, CAI L Q, XIE J H, ZHANG Y Q, MA X, PAN Z D. Response of soil moisture to the age of alfalfa standing and subsequent spring wheat in the rainfed Loess Plateau. Pratacultural Science, 2020, 37(0): 1-12 doi: 10.11829/j.issn.1001-0629.2020-0146 shu

黄土高原旱作农田土壤水分对苜蓿种植年限和后茬春小麦的响应

    作者简介: 蔡雪梅(1993-),女,甘肃兰州人,在读硕士生,研究方向为土壤生态学。E-mail: ;
    通讯作者: 罗珠珠, .cn
  • 基金项目:BG视讯 国家基金项目(31860364,41461067);甘肃省科技计划项目(18JR3RA175);甘肃省国际科技合作基地(GSPT-2018-56)

摘要: 春小麦 (Triticum aestivum)是黄土高原雨养农业区主要的禾谷类作物,该区紫花苜蓿(Medicago sativa)的种植也较为广泛。针对黄土高原半干旱雨养区连续种植多年苜蓿会形成土壤干层,并对后茬粮食作物生长产生严重影响的问题,以黄土高原半干旱区生长9年的苜蓿草地为研究对象,通过连续8年(2012–2019年)的定位试验,研究探讨黄土高原半干旱区不同种植年限苜蓿地和生长9年的苜蓿地翻耕轮作不同年限春小麦后0 – 300 cm土层土壤水分演变特征,明确旱作农田土壤水分对苜蓿种植年限和后茬春小麦轮作的响应。结果表明,苜蓿种植1年后50 – 110 cm土层水分为14.17%,开始呈现出轻度干燥化现象,110 – 200 cm土层在连续种植3年苜蓿后土壤水分变为12.39%,表现出轻度干燥化现象,200 – 300 cm土层在连续种植3年苜蓿后土壤水分为13.50%,低于凋萎湿度,土壤为重度干燥化。生长9年的苜蓿地翻耕轮作春小麦后,随着轮作年限的延长,土壤干层水分明显恢复,其中50 – 110 cm土层土壤水分在轮作5年后完全恢复,110 – 200 cm土层水分在轮作6年后完全恢复,而200 – 300 cm土层经过连续7年的春小麦轮作后,土壤水分仅为15.11%,依然不能完全恢复。因此,在陇中黄土高原半干旱区连续种植多年苜蓿后,应适时与一年生作物轮作以维持雨养农业系统的可持续发展。

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      魏永鹏南丽丽于闯付双军 . 种植密度和行距配置对紫花苜蓿群体产量及品质的影响. 草业科学, doi:  BG视讯

  • BG视讯

    图 1  试验地2012–2019年降水量及多年平均降水量变化

    Figure 1.  Average monthly rainfall from 2012 to 2019 and long-term mean at the experimental sites

    图 2  苜蓿地0 – 300 cm不同土层土壤剖面水分变化特征

    Figure 2.  Variation characteristics of the soil moisture in different soil layers at a depth of 0 – 300 cm in the alfalfa field

    图 3  生长9年的苜蓿地土壤剖面水分特征

    Figure 3.  BG视讯 Soil profile water characteristics of 9-year-old alfalfa

    图 4  BG视讯 苜蓿—春小麦轮作系统土壤剖面水分恢复情况

    Figure 4.  BG视讯 Soil moisture recharge in the alfalfa–spring wheat rotation system

    表 1  BG视讯 试区土壤理化性质

    Table 1.  BG视讯 General soil chemical and physical properties at the Dingxi site

    土层 Soil
    layer/cm
    容重 Bulk density/(g·cm-3)有机碳 Organic carbon/(g·kg–1)全氮 Total N/(g·kg–1)速效磷 Available P/(mg·kg–1)速效钾 Available K/(mg·kg–1)pH
    0 – 5 1.29 7.63 0.85 13.3 349.6 8.32
    5 – 10 1.23 7.46 0.87 11.5 330.2 8.37
    10 – 30 1.32 6.93 0.78 4.90 244.0 8.33
    30 – 50 1.20 6.63 0.78 1.80 173.0 8.30
    50 – 80 1.14 7.29 0.81 2.10 123.1 8.32
    80 – 110 1.14 7.49 0.80 2.10 101.5 8.37
    110 – 140 1.13 6.60 0.73 1.60 102.5 8.42
    140 – 170 1.12 6.51 0.66 1.80 102.0 8.43
    170 – 200 1.11 6.15 0.59 2.20 104.1 8.40
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  土壤干燥化强度和土壤干层土壤水分恢复程度划分

    Table 2.  Classification of the soil desiccation intensity and soil moisture recharge degree in the dry layer

    等级
    Grade
    土壤干燥化指数
    SDI
    土壤干燥化强度
    Soil desiccation intensity
    土壤水分恢复指数
    SWRI
    土壤干层水分恢复程度
    Dry soil moisture recharge degree
    1 ≥ 100.0%无干燥化 No desiccation ≥ 100%完全恢复 Complete recharge
    275.0% ≤ SDI < 100.0%轻度干燥化 Light desiccation75% ≤ SWRI < 100%极好恢复 Great recharge
    350.0% ≤ SDI < 75.0%中度干燥化 Moderate desiccation50% ≤ SWRI < 75%良好恢复 Good recharge
    425.0% ≤ SDI < 50.0%严重干燥化 Serious desiccation25% ≤ SWRI < 50%中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    50.0% ≤ SDI < 25.0%强烈干燥化 Strong desiccation0 ≤ SWRI < 25%轻度恢复 Light recharge
    6 < 0.0%极度干燥化 Extreme desiccation < 0%无恢复 No recharge
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  BG视讯 黄土高原半干旱区苜蓿地0 – 300 cm土层水分变化特征

    Table 3.  BG视讯 Water variation characteristics of alfalfa in the 0 – 300-cm soil layer in a semi-arid region of the Loess Plateau

    种植年限 Standing years/a土壤水分
    Soil moisture/%
    土壤贮水量 Soil water amount/mm土壤有效贮水量 Available soil water amount/mm每米土层有效贮水量 Available water amount in every 1 m soil layer/mm土壤水分过耗量 Amount of soil water over-use/mm土壤干燥化速率 Speed of desiccation/(mm·a–1)
    1 15.87 ± 0.82ab 471.52 ± 24.44a 152.57 ± 24.44a 50.86 ± 8.15a 100.17 ± 24.44d 100.17 ± 24.44a
    2 14.91 ± 0.63b 451.72 ± 19.53ab 132.77 ± 19.53ab 44.26 ± 6.51ab 119.97 ± 19.53cd 59.98 ± 9.77b
    3 16.81 ± 0.34a 437.30 ± 15.87abc 118.35 ± 15.87abc 39.45 ± 5.29abc 134.39 ± 15.87bcd 44.80 ± 5.29bc
    4 12.53 ± 0.42cd 406.59 ± 2.82cd 87.64 ± 2.82cd 29.21 ± 0.94cd 165.10 ± 2.82ab 41.28 ± 0.71c
    5 11.49 ± 0.18d 381.43 ± 7.51d 62.48 ± 7.51d 20.83 ± 2.53d 190.26 ± 7.51a 38.05 ± 1.50cd
    6 13.21 ± 0.98c 393.79 ± 31.05d 74.84 ± 31.05d 24.95 ± 10.35d 177.90 ± 31.05a 29.65 ± 5.18cde
    7 15.76 ± 0.98ab 437.53 ± 32.45abc 118.58 ± 32.45abc 39.53 ± 10.82abc 134.16 ± 32.45bcd 19.17 ± 4.64e
    8 15.03 ± 0.99b 410.82 ± 28.89bcd 91.87 ± 28.89bcd 30.62 ± 9.63bcd 160.87 ± 28.89abc 20.11 ± 3.61de
    CLL 10.63 318.95 0
    SSM 19.04 571.69 252.74
    DUL 27.45 823.42 504.47
     表内数据为平均值 ± 标准差(n = 3);同列不同小写字母表示不同种植年限间差异显著(P < 0.05);表45同。CLL为凋萎湿度,SSM为土壤稳定湿度,DUL为土壤最大重力持水量。

     Data are mean ± standard deviation in the table (n = 3) and different lowercase letters within the same column indicate significant difference between the different treatments at the 0.05 level; this is applicable for Tables 4 and 5 as well. CLL: Wilting moisture; SSM: Soil stable moisture; DUL: Drainage upper limit.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4  BG视讯 不同种植年限苜蓿产量和水分利用效率

    Table 4.  Alfalfa yield and WUE of different standing years

    种植年限
    Standing years/a
    生育期降水 Growth precipitation/mm总产量
    Biomass/(kg·hm–2)
    耗水量 ET/mm水分利用效率 WUE/[kg·(hm2·mm)–1]
    1 381.60 1008.33 ± 101.04d 407.23 ± 21.81b 2.47 ± 0.17d
    2 428.30 6618.33 ± 592.78c 454.84 ± 19.81a 14.55 ± 1.09c
    3 313.90 8743.32 ± 702.30bc 272.841 ± 5.16de 32.05 ± 2.51b
    4 274.10 10408.57 ± 1646.33b 263.69 ± 7.79de 39.47 ± 6.61ab
    5 263.10 9810.99 ± 1427.34b 294.05 ± 11.45cd 33.47 ± 5.65b
    6 311.29 9751.39 ± 1584.95b 250.62 ± 28.14e 39.39 ± 9.20ab
    7 427.90 14229.00 ± 1085.87a 404.88 ± 29.77b 35.22 ± 2.99ab
    8 437.20 14563.69 ± 2035.85a 322.03 ± 22.93c 45.59 ± 8.79a
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 5  黄土高原半干旱区不同种植年限苜蓿地土壤干燥化强度和土层厚度

    Table 5.  Soil desiccation intensity and soil thickness of alfalfa in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau over different standing years

    种植年限 Standing years/a平均土壤干燥化指数 Average SDI/%土壤干燥化强度 Soil desiccation intensity土层厚度 Soil thickness/cm
    极度干燥层 Extreme desiccated soil layer强烈干燥层 Strong desiccated soil layer严重干燥层 Serious desiccated soil layer中度干燥层 Moderate desiccated soil layer轻度干燥层 Light desiccated soil layer
    162.30 ± 9.70ab中度干燥化 Moderate desiccation0014012040
    250.85 ± 7.44b中度干燥化 Moderate desiccation0505014060
    373.48 ± 4.09a中度干燥化 Moderate desiccation5015030030
    422.63 ± 5.04cd强烈干燥化 Strong desiccation5050170300
    510.24 ± 2.12d强烈干燥化 Strong desiccation5090130300
    630.61 ± 11.68c严重干燥化 Serious desiccation1004090700
    761.03 ± 11.69ab中度干燥化 Moderate desiccation10004060100
    852.35 ± 11.77b中度干燥化 Moderate desiccation1004060600
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 6  粮草轮作后苜蓿地0–300 cm土层平均土壤水分恢复指数和恢复程度

    Table 6.  BG视讯 Average soil water recovery index and recharge degree of the 0–300-cm alfalfa soil layer after crop rotation

    年份
    Year
    土层
    soil layer/(cm)
    土壤水分
    Soil moisture/(%)
    平均土壤水分恢复指数
    Average SWRI/(%)
    土壤水分恢复程度
    Soil water recharge degree
    50 – 110 11.21 ± 0.79b
    2012 110 – 200 11.72 ± 0.58c
    200 – 300 11.13 ± 0.22c
    50 – 110 17.03 ± 1.67a 86.34 极好恢复 Great recharge
    2013 110 – 200 13.63 ± 1.65bc 24.45 轻度恢复 Light recharge
    200 – 300 12.81 ± 0.97bc 13.73 轻度恢复 Light recharge
    50 – 110 12.47 ± 2.61b 24.48 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    2014 110 – 200 14.10 ± 0.91bc 26.64 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    200 – 300 13.64 ± 0.54abc 10.50 轻度恢复 Light recharge
    50 – 110 11.12 ± 2.15b 3.16 轻度恢复 Light recharge
    2015 110 – 200 14.32 ± 0.78bc 27.24 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    200 – 300 15.51 ± 1.65ab 38.72 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    50 – 110 11.96 ± 3.21b 18.33 轻度恢复 Light recharge
    2016 110 – 200 14.31 ± 0.61bc 28.45 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    200 – 300 15.15 ± 1.40ab 32.30 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    50 – 110 18.52 ± 1.31a 145.85 完全恢复 Complete recharge
    2017 110 – 200 16.28 ± 1.40b 55.24 良好恢复 Good recharge
    200 – 300 14.72 ± 0.82ab 25.89 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
    50 – 110 20.01 ± 0.45a 264.72 完全恢复 Complete recharge
    2018 110 – 200 19.10 ± 2.87a 116.07 完全恢复 Complete recharge
    200 – 300 16.69 ± 3.38a 56.63 良好恢复 Good recharge
    50 – 110 19.71 ± 1.20a 130.47 完全恢复 Complete recharge
    2019 110 – 200 15.43 ± 1.60a 52.42 良好恢复 Good recharge
    200 – 300 15.11 ± 2.95ab 43.14 中度恢复 Moderate recharge
     同列不同小写字母表示不同年份同一土层之间差异显著(P < 0.05).

     Different lowercase letters within the same column indicate a significant difference at the 0.05 level in the same soil layer in different years.
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    BG视讯
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                • 通讯作者:  罗珠珠, .cn
                • 收稿日期:  2020-03-23
                • 网络出版日期:  2020-07-22
                通讯作者: 陈斌,
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